Edgar Ocampo Tellez: El propósito de este trabajo es el de realizar un acercamiento a las condiciones que serán necesarias construir durante las próximas décadas para que México logre alcanzar un modelo energético sostenible hacia el horizonte 2050. - The objective of this paper is to examine all energy sources for Mexico to have sustainable energy supplies by 2050. This primarily includes wind, solar, fossil fuels. There are no plans to replace their nuclear plants, in part because there are no companies in the USA or Europe to build them. So far, Mexico has not turned to Russia, China or South Korea to provide new nuclear plants.
Alexander Hellemans, IEEE Spectrum: As soon as the new Dutch government took office in October, it announced an aggressive target—to reduce carbon emissions by 49 percent by 2030. This will ultimately require the Netherlands to sequester 20 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year—equivalent to the annual emissions produced by 4.5 coal-fired power plants. Sequestering that much CO2 underground will be difficult, whether it’s captured directly from the flues of power stations and steel mills or extracted from the air. Currently, the Netherlands sequesters less than 10,000 metric tons of CO2 annually.
Vaclav Smil, Czech-Canadian scientist and policy analyst. Professor Emeritus in the Faculty of Environment at the University of Manitoba in Canada: The human craving for novelty is insatiable, and in a small matter you can meet it in no time at all, particularly when Moore’s Law can help you. It took a single decade to come up with entirely new mobile phones. But you just can’t replicate that pace of adoption with techniques that form the structure of modern civilization—growing food, extracting energy, producing bulk materials, or providing transport on mass scales.
IEEE SPECTRUM, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.: IEEE Spectrum’s editors and writers investigate a dozen of the world’s most promising projects to cut greenhouse gases. We soaked up some of the best thinking on the use of tech to cut carbon emissions. But what did it all suggest collectively? Could these projects, and others like them, make a real difference? Let’s just say that they don’t call them “miracles” for nothing.
Nadine Freischlad, writer for Mongabay Series: In the early 2000s, Kirk Sorensen had begun trying to revive interest in an alternative type of reactor, one that uses the element thorium instead of uranium to start the nuclear reaction, and liquid fuel instead of solid rods to sustain it. He believes thorium could make the next generation of nuclear power plants safer and easier to manage, and provide the world with an abundance of clean, cheap and safe energy. Nuclear had been considered in Indonesia before, but plans never materialized due to safety concerns. After all, Indonesia is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis, a country of thousands of islands draped across the seismic Ring of Fire.
Fritz Vahrenholt, PhD Chemistry, Chairman, German Wildlife Foundations: You have called the German energy transition a "disaster". How so? Fritz Vahrenholt : First of all, after the tsunami in Japan, the German government decided within a weekend to renounce nuclear energy, which until then had created the base load for German industry. Since then, the government wants to replace this secure energy with fluctuating electricity from sun and wind. Everyone knows that this is not sensible.
Vaclav Smil, Czech-Canadian scientist and policy analyst. Professor Emeritus in the Faculty of Environment at the University of Manitoba in Canada: The age of commercial nuclear electricity generation began on 17 October 1956, when Queen Elizabeth II switched on Calder Hall, on the Cumberland coast of England. Sixty years is long enough to judge the technology, and I still cannot improve on my evaluation from the early 2000s: a “successful failure.” He says that we have to have better technology. The record for nuclear safety and production of electricity exceeds all other forms of generating electricity. For some, nuclear will never be safe or good enough.
Fritz Vahrenholt, PhD Chemistry, Chairman, German Wildlife Foundations: The foundation of the Paris Climate Change Agreement has collapsed. By 2100, whatever we do, we will not exceed the 2 degree limit. What happens to the worldwide use of coal? There is no departure from coal except in Europe and Canada. China and India, according to the Paris Agreement, like all developing countries, massively expand coal-fired power stations. In China, 280,000 MW will be added, in India 174,000 MW. By comparison, the entire brown coal fleet in Germany has a capacity of 22,700 MW. 1600 coal-fired power plants are built in 62 countries worldwide, most of them by Chinese power plant builders and with the help of Chinese loans
Fritz Vahrenholt, PhD Chemistry, Chairman, German Wildlife Foundations: What was demanded in the Green Party program in 1986, the abolition of the nuclear industry, the automotive industry and parts of the chemical industry, has long since become consensus in the middle of society. How could that succeed? With apocalyptic horror scenarios, the cleavage of the atom, as well as the slight increase of the vital molecule CO2 in the atmosphere, become ciphers of disaster. What country, what state will lead the world to the bottom of the reliable, environmentally sound energy policy: Germany, California? What countries will be outstanding sound energy program leaders: Canada, China, France, Jordan, Russia, South Africa, South Korea?
Fritz Vahrenholt, PhD Chemistry, Alleinvorstand der Deutschen Wildtier Stiftung: Das, was 1986 im Parteiprogramm der Grünen gefordert wurde, die Abschaffung der Atomindustrie, Automobilindustrie sowie Teilen der Chemieindustrie, ist längst in der Mitte der Gesellschaft zum Konsens geworden. Wie konnte das gelingen? Mit apokalyptischen Schreckensszenarien wird die Spaltung des Atoms, ebenso wie die geringfügige Erhöhung des lebensnotwendigen Moleküls CO2 in der Atmosphäre, zu Chiffren des Unheils.Wir müssen uns wieder dem zuwenden, was zu diesem Wohlstand geführt hat: Offenheit für Innovationen. Viel Hoffnung habe ich allerdings nicht.