John Cardarelli II, Captain US Public Health Service Officer, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Brant Ulsh, M. H. Chew & Associates, Livermore, CA, USA: The USEPA uses the linear no-threshold (LNT) model to estimate cancer risks and determine cleanup levels in radiologically contaminated environments. The LNT model implies that there is no safe dose of ionizing radiation; however, adverse effects from low dose, low-dose rate (LDDR) exposures are not detectable.
Mohn Doss, Medical Physicist in Diagnostic Imaging: The LNT Era (Linear No Threshold) has not ended yet. But, there are signs that we may be approaching its end. The problem with the LNT model for radiation-induced cancer is the absence of threshold results in the fear of the smallest amount of radiation. The LNT model was adopted by advisory bodies in the 1950 and has been endorsed by them repeatedly. Low-dose radiation boosts the immune system and so it should lead to reduction of cancers, a phenomenon known as radiation hormesis. Conclusion: The LNT mmodel is not valid and lives are being lost because of the LNT model and unjustified fear of low-dose radiation.
Donald Miller, MD: Fearful of the harm that radiation can do, the citizens of Sacramento, in a public referendum, had the city shut down its Rancho Seco nuclear power plant. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District put up windmills instead, which on a windy day produces 1 percent of the power the nuclear plant did.
Ludwig Feinendegen, M.D., former director of the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Germany, 2010 Marie Curie Prize - Jerry Cuttler, D.Sc. in nuclear sciences and engineering, recipient of 2011 International Dose-Response Society Award for Outstanding Career Achievement: There is considerable controversy regarding risk of health detriment after low-level exposure to ionizing radiation. This stems in part from a sort of distance between radiation biologists, epidemiologists, and radiation protection professionals, as well as regulatory institutions. This feeds seriously into a somewhat hazy fear of ionizing radiation that besets large portions of the public.
Alan Waltar, nuclear engineer, Past President of the American Nuclear Society, Chair ANS - HPS Joint Topical Conference on Applicability of Radiation-Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards, October 1 - 3, 2018: Preliminary Program. This conference addresses one of the most important issues facing nuclear power and nuclear medicine, how to establish realistic low dose radiation protection standards. Since the beginning of use of nuclear power in the 1950s, the arbitrary Linear No-Threshold Model with Collective Dose Corollary has been used with results that vastly over predict deaths due to exposure to low dose radiation. This has added tremendous costs, held back the use of nuclear power and limited the use of nuclear medicine. This conference aims at working to establish a low dose protection standard that is based on reality of living organisms rather than an unrealistic arbitrary set of rules.
Wade Allison, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Oxford University, UK: Nuclear energy can affect life when a nucleus decays, releasing energy as radiation. Everything, even our own bodiees, contains some natural radioactivity, and nuclear radiation shines on us from space too. If it had been really dangerous, life would have died out aeons ago, when radiation flux was more intense than it is today. To survive the oxidative damage caused by radiation and oxygen, life has evolved a series of amazingly clever design features and strategies.
Howard Cork Hayden, Emeritus Physics Professor, University of Connecticut: Cancer is largely a failure of the immune system. Cells of the body are continuously being damaged and repaired, but suppressing the immune system increases the likelihood of cancer. Low doses of radiation evidently stimulate the immune system, with the result that there is a real hormesis effect. Any dose below about 100 mGy (10,000 mrads) can be considered safe. Normally, we would post just excerpts from this publication. Since the LNT article is a major part of this issue, we post the whole newsletter this one time.
Mohn Doss, Medical Physicist in Diagnostic Imaging. The ALARA concept, As Low As Reasonably Achievable is base on the linear no-threshold (LNT) model assumption and / or low--dose radiation cancer concerns. Do mutations increase linearly with radiation dose? When radiation dose increases, at low doses, mutations decrease. Cancers do not increase linearly with mutations. There are many more reasons to conclude: Mutation model of cancer is not valid. See for example slide 6 / 13.
Rod Adams, Atomic energy expert with small nuclear plant operating and design experience. Financial, strategic, and political analyst.: Excessive regulation of extremely low radiation doses increases the public fears of nuclear technology, increases the costs borne by society, and can deprive society of the full benefit of that technology.” – Edward Maher, Sc.D., Harvard University
Neil Alexander, Ph.D. radiation damage in steels, business strategist, consultant and advocate for nuclear energy: Eating is a risk, but not eating is a greater one. Let us remember that many other things that are not radioactive can also initiate cancer. Bacon for example. And for all we know that works on a LNT basis. That next rasher may literally be the death of you, or that cup of coffee. And don’t get me on the subject of beer, wine or anything else with alcohol in it.