William Happer, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Steven Koonin, New York University, Center for Urban Science and Progress, Under Secretary for Science at U.S. Depart. of Energy in President Obama's administration, Richard Lindzen Emeritus Professor, MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences: This is a tutorial on man-made global warming, man-made climate change for the U.S. District Court, Northern District of California, San Francisco Division. 1) The climate is always changing. 2) Human influences on the climate are a small (1%) perturbation to natural energy flows. 3) It is not possible to tell how much of the modest recent warming can be ascribed to human influences. 4) There have been no detrimental changes observed in the most salient climate variables and today's projections of future changes are highly uncertain.
Don Bogard, radio-geochemistry, nuclear geochemistry, planetary science: Carbon (C) exchange rates among C reservoirs tend to be at equilibrium unless and until a significant environmental change disturbs that. A significant increase in atmospheric (Atmos) CO2 concentration over the past century has been such a disturbance, and as a consequence a large fraction of that growth in Atmos CO2 has manifested as new plant growth and to increased ocean C levels. Increased temperature over the past century (which mostly has only modestly affected the ocean) and any tendency for warmer surface ocean to degas more CO2, has been over-powered by higher Atmos CO2 shifting the chemical equilibrium toward more dissolution of Atmos CO2 into the oceans. Higher decay rates of soil biotic material caused by the increased temperatures may be a source of part of the Atmos CO2 increase over the past century. However, it is most unlikely that organic decay has been other than a minor source, especially in the past few decades when Atmos CO2 was growing most rapidly.
Bonne Posma, physicist, Andrew Kenny, physicist, mechanical engineer: It is interesting to note that previous CO2 alarmist, James Lovelock (originator of the Gaia hypothesis), reversed himself about 10 years ago and now supports increased use of fossil fuels to potentially help mitigate the effects of the next ice age. This action was also proposed in 1900 by the first proponent of CO2-linked global warming, Svante Arrhenius (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903).
Llewellyn King, White House Chronicle, John Shanahan, Environmentalists for Nuclear - USA: The debate about man-made global warming must be resolved quickly and one action or the other taken in a matter of decades not longer. The choices are to stop using fossil fuels around the world in a decade or so because of man-made climate change or continue to use fossil fuels and promote nuclear energy to deal with natural climate change and man's need for energy. The choices are radically different. It would be a disaster to make the wrong choice. The Scientific Method must be used to make the right choice.
Llewellyn King, White House Chronicle, John Shanahan and Bruno Comby, Environmentalists for Nuclear, Calvin Beisner, Cornwall Alliance: This is a discussion of possibilities for a program/series on PBS TV to explore the topic of man-made global warming. The idea would be welcomed by the public. Message 1 is from Llewellyn King. Message 2 is a reply from John Shanahan with suggestions for a program or series. Message 3 is an excellent summary of this topic by Bruno Comby. Message 4 has excellent questions by Calvin Beisner. Don't miss the significance and subtitles of the pictures.
Stewart Brand, the man who helped usher in the environmental movement in the 1960s and '70s has been rethinking his positions on biodiversity and mass extinctions. Whereas biodiversity may be surviving well at lower levels of the world food chain, more consideration should be given to protecting wildlife and their habitat at the top of the food chain.
Investor's Business Daily: It has become an article of faith in the U.S. that recycling is a good thing. But evidence is piling up that recycling is a waste of time and money, and a bit of a fraud. The New York Times recently reported that, unknown to most families who spend hours separating garbage into little recycling bins, much of the stuff ends up in a landfill anyway. One big reason: China has essentially shut the door to U.S. recyclables.
Michael E. Mann, American climatologist and geophysicist, currently director of the Earth System Science Center at Pennsylvania State University: Twenty years hockey stick, actually no reason to celebrate. One of the biggest scientific deception maneuvers should rather stay in the drawer. The big profiteer of the action at that time was the firebrand doctoral student Michael Mann.